BILJOU is a forest water balance model that simulates water flows (transpiration, interception, soil evaporation and drainage) in a forest ecosystem at daily time steps.


BROOK90 is a hydrological model that simulates vertical soil water movement and daily evapotranspiration for all land surfaces at all times of year using a process-oriented approach with physically-meaningful parameters. The complexities of hillslope hydrology and spatial distribution have been omitted in order to focus on the details of the factors controlling evaporation. The model estimates interception and transpiration from a single layer (big leaf) plant canopy, soil and snow evaporation, snow accumulation and melt, and soil-water movement through one or more soil layers (including macropore-assisted infiltration).


CANOAK is a coupled biophysical and ecophysiolgical model that computes fluxes of water, heat and CO2 exchange within vegetation canopies and between the canopy and the atmosphere. In doing so CANOAK computes the canopy microclimate (light, wind, temperature, humidity and CO2), which provides drivers for physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

Carbon Energy Nutrients Water (CENW)

CenW is a generic growth and carbon cycling model that simulates photosynthetic carbon gain, water use and the nitrogen cycle through soil organic matter. The photosynthetic modelling uses a simple, yet physiologically based, description of photosynthesis together with simple assumptions about light interception. Nitrogen turn-over is calculated with a modified version of the CENTURY model, which links organic carbon and nitrogen in soil organic matter pools and the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in the soil with that in plants.

CArbon-Nitrogen Dynamics (CANDY)

The agro-ecosystem model CANDY (Carbon And Nitrogen DYnamics) has been developed to describe carbon and nitrogen dynamics in arable soils in order to provide information about carbon stocks in soils, organic matter turnover, nitrogen uptake by crops, leaching and water quality. The basic process modules are: soil water dynamics, soil temperature dynamics, crop development including permanent grassland and livestock, soil organic matter turnover and nitrogen dynamics


CASTANEA is a physiological multilayer process-based model designed to predict the carbon balance of an even-aged, monospecific deciduous forest stand. The main output variables are: (1) leaf area index (LAI), standing biomass, soil carbon content and water content, which are state variables; and (2) canopy photosynthesis, maintenance respiration, growth of organs, growth respiration, soil heterotrophic respiration, transpiration and evapotranspiration, which are flux density variables


DAYCENT is a biogeochemical model that simulates fluxes of C and N among the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil operating at daily time-steps. Key submodels include soil water content and temperature by layer, plant production and allocation of net primary production (NPP), decomposition of litter and soil organic matter, mineralization of nutrients, N gas emissions from nitrification and denitrification, and CH4 oxidation in non-saturated soils. Model outputs include: daily N-gas flux (N2O, NOx, N2), CO2 flux from heterotrophic soil respiration, soil organic C and N, NPP, H2O and NO3 leaching, and other ecosystem parameters.

DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC)

DNDC is a computer simulation model of carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in agro-ecosystems. The model can be used for predicting crop growth, soil temperature and moisture regimes, soil carbon dynamics, nitrogen leaching, and emissions of trace gases including nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), dinitrogen (N2), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2).


FORCLIM is a climate-sensitive forest succession (“gap”) model, developed to simulate forest stand dynamics over a wide range of environmental conditions. The PLANT submodel simulates establishment, growth and mortality of tree individuals that, for technical reasons, are grouped in size cohorts. The WEATHER and WATER submodels provide the input data for the PLANT submodel. The submodel MANAGEMENT allows simulations forest management strategies that are commonly used in Central Europe, such as clearcutting, shelterwood, thinning, planting, among others.

FORESEE–FORESt Ecosystems in a Changing Environment (4C)

4C is a model developed to describe long-term forest behaviour under changing environmental conditions. The model includes descriptions of tree species composition, forest structure, total ecosystem carbon content as well as leaf area index. The model shares a number of features with gap models, which have often been used for the simulation of long-term forest development. Establishment, growth and mortality of tree cohorts are explicitly modelled on a patch on which horizontal homogeneity is assumed. 4C requires climatic driving variables on a daily resolution but the outputs are given according to various time steps.

FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer (FORCAsT)

FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer model is a canopy model capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic VOC oxidation.

Forest Community Ecology and Ecosystem ProcesseS (FORCEEPS)

A forest community model for woody species (Angiosperms and Gymnosperms). Inspired by the gap model ForClim, deals with environmental and biotic filtering of forest communities and ecosystem processes such as biomass production

forest dynamics in spatially changing environments (FORSPACE)

FORSPACE is a spatially explicit forest gap model that aims to give a realistic description of the processes that determine forest dynamics at the scale of a landscape (up to thousands of hectares). Gap dynamics in relation to herbivores are an important aspects of FORSPACE. FORSPACE tracks cohorts of identical individuals per species. The vertical structure is represented by different height cohorts per species.

FORest management strategies to enhance the MITigation potential of European forests (FORMIT-M)

FORMIT-M is a widely applicable, open-access, simple and flexible, climate-sensitive forest management simulator requiring only standard forest inventory data as input. It combines a process-based carbon balance approach with a strong inventory-based empirical component.


FORMIND is an individual-based vegetation model that simulates the growth of forests on the hectare scale. It allows to explore forest dynamics and forest structure including also processes like gap building. The main processes included in FORMIND are recruitment and establishment, mortality and growth. They depend on site-specific environmental conditions (temperature, insoolation, …). In addition, disturbances like fire events, forest fragmentation, logging or landslides can be activated.


HETEROFOR is a spatially-explicit and process-based model describing individual tree growth based on resource sharing (light, water and nutrients) in uneven-aged and mixed stands. HETEROFOR was progressively elaborated through the integration of various modules (light interception, phenology, water cycling, photosynthesis and respiration, carbon allocation, mineral nutrition and nutrient cycling).

JAnak-BOtkin-WAllis (JABOWA)

JABOWA is a forest model developed in 1970 by Daniel B. Botkin, and James F. Janak and James R. Wallis. Since this, this kind of model is known among ecologists as “gap model” . The model simulates the growth of individual trees on small plots, as a function of forest structure and environmental variables such as elevation, rainfall and soil properties.


KEYLINK is a soil model integrating new knowledge on soil structure and its importance for soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and hydrology, with the existing concepts on SOM pools, and elements from food web models, i.e. those from direct trophic interactions among soil organisms.


LINKAGES is a forest ecosystem biogeochemistry model that predicts long-term structure and dynamics of forest ecosystems as constrained by nitrogen availability, climate, and soil moisture. LINKAGES simulates ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage and cycling by considering the interactions between physiological processes that determine individual tree growth, demographic processes that determine tree-population dynamics, microbial processes that determine nitrogen availability, and environmental processes that determine water availability.


MAESTRO/MAESTRA is a 3D model of forest canopy radiation absorption and photosynthesis. The forest canopy is represented in the model as an array of tree crowns, whose positions and dimensions are specified, but calculations are done for a target crown.


MILLENIAL is a soil model developed to simulate C pools that can be measured by extraction or fractionation, including particulate organic C, mineral-associated organic C, aggregate C, microbial biomass, and low molecular weight C. Model processes have been updated to reflect the current understanding of mineral-association, temperature sensitivity and reaction kinetics.

Modeling and Analysis in Dendroecology (MAIDEN)

MAIDEN is an ecophysiological model that was created to explore the relationships between climate variability and forest growth-productivity. The simulations can be verified using different data to validate the different processes in the model, including dendroecological growth data, 13C and 18O data and measurements of ecosystem carbon and water fluxes.


MuSICA is a model primarily developed to simulate the exchanges of mass (water, CO2) and energy in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Stand structure is explicitly accounted for and competition for light and water between species can be explored. The model typically produces output at a 30-min time step and can be run over multiple years or decades as long as the vegetation structure is given.

Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth (3-PG)

The 3-PG model was developed to bridge the gap between conventional, mensuration-based growth and yield, and process-based carbon balance models. 3-PG calculates the radiant energy absorbed by forest canopies and converts it into biomass production. The efficiency of radiation conversion is modified by the effects of nutrition, soil drought (the model includes continuous calculation of water balance), atmospheric vapour pressure deficits and stand age. Output includes stem biomass and volume, average stem diameters, stand basal area at any time and the time course of Leaf Area Index.


The PICUS model family is based on the patch model approach and comprises the three model variants,each operating on a different level of physiological detail


PREBAS is a forest growth and ecosystem carbon balance model. In PREBAS three different models PRELES (PREdict Light-use efficiency, Evapotranspiration and Soil water), CROBAS (Tree growth and CROwn BASe from carbon balance), and YASSO (Yet Another Simulator of Soil Organic matter) are coupled together in order to predict the growth and carbon balance of the forest ecosystem. CROBAS provides estimates of LAI (Leaf Area Index) that is used in PRELES to compute gross primary production. GPP is then used by CROBAS to estimate forest growth. The stand structural variables and the biomass components of the forest are updated. Meanwhile, CROBAS estimates the litter production that is the input of YASSO.

Rothamsted carbon model (ROTH-C)

ROTH-C is amodel for the turnover of organic carbon in non-waterlogged topsoils that allows for the effects of soil type, temperature, moisture and plant cover on the turnover precesses. It uses a monthly time step to calculate total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and delta 14C on a years to centuries timescale.


SORTIE-ND (or just SORTIE) is an individual-based forest simulator designed to study neighborhood processes. This means that the trees in the forest are modeled individually, not as averages or spatial aggregates. Each individual has a location in space. SORTIE specializes in modeling the interactions of trees with their nearest neighbors to study local neighborhood dynamics.

Three Dimensional Forest Ecosystem Model of the euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (3D-CMCC-FEM)

3D-CMCC-FEM is a hybrid or fully bio-geochemical forest model that simulates storage and fluxes of carbon, water, and nitrogen including the dynamics occurring in forest ecosystems. The model is able to reproduce dynamics occurring in homogeneous and heterogeneous forests with different plant species, for different ages, diameters and height classes competing with each other for resources. The model simulates carbon fluxes in terms of gross and net primary production, partitioning and allocation in the main plant compartments (stem, branch, leaf, fruit, fine and coarse root, including non-structural carbon compounds). Nitrogen fluxes and allocation in the same carbon pools are also reproduced

University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME)

UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates the annual establishment, growth, and mortality of individual trees on independent patches (i.e. plots) of a forested landscape. The model is only spatially distributed in the vertical dimension, and plots are assumed to have no direct spatial interactions with one another. Through a Monte Carlo-style aggregation, the average of several hundred of these independent patches represents the average expected conditions of a forested landscape through time.