CANOAK is a coupled biophysical and ecophysiolgical model that computes fluxes of water, heat and CO2 exchange within vegetation canopies and between the canopy and the atmosphere. In doing so CANOAK computes the canopy microclimate (light, wind, temperature, humidity and CO2), which provides drivers for physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

Ecosystem Demography model (ED)

ED is an individual-based model of vegetation dynamics with integrated submodels of plant growth, mortality, phenology, disturbance, hydrology and soil biogeochemistry. individual plants of different functional types compete mechanistically in ED under local environmental conditions.

Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed land (LPJmL)

The LPJmL model is a dynamic gloval vegetation model designed to simulate the global terrestrial water and carbon cycles and the response of carbon and vegetation patterns under climate change. LPJmL simulate vegetation composition and distribution as well as stocks and land-atmosphere exchange flows of carbon and water, both for natural and agricultural ecosystems.

Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSYS)

RHESSYS is a GIS-based hydro-ecological modelling framework designed to simulate carbon, water and nutrient fluxes. By combining a set of physically-based process models and a methodology for partitioning and parameterizing the landscape, RHESSYS is capable of modelling the spatial distribution and spatio-temporal interactions between different processes at the watershed scale.

Three Dimensional Forest Ecosystem Model of the euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (3D-CMCC-FEM)

3D-CMCC-FEM is a hybrid or fully bio-geochemical forest model that simulates storage and fluxes of carbon, water, and nitrogen including the dynamics occurring in forest ecosystems. The model is able to reproduce dynamics occurring in homogeneous and heterogeneous forests with different plant species, for different ages, diameters and height classes competing with each other for resources. The model simulates carbon fluxes in terms of gross and net primary production, partitioning and allocation in the main plant compartments (stem, branch, leaf, fruit, fine and coarse root, including non-structural carbon compounds). Nitrogen fluxes and allocation in the same carbon pools are also reproduced