FORESEE–FORESt Ecosystems in a Changing Environment (4C)
4C is a model developed to describe long-term forest behaviour under changing environmental conditions. The model includes descriptions of tree species composition, forest structure, total ecosystem carbon content as well as leaf area index. The model shares a number of features with gap models, which have often been used for the simulation of long-term forest development. Establishment, growth and mortality of tree cohorts are explicitly modelled on a patch on which horizontal homogeneity is assumed. 4C requires climatic driving variables on a daily resolution but the outputs are given according to various time steps.