CArbon-Nitrogen Dynamics (CANDY)

The agro-ecosystem model CANDY (Carbon And Nitrogen DYnamics) has been developed to describe carbon and nitrogen dynamics in arable soils in order to provide information about carbon stocks in soils, organic matter turnover, nitrogen uptake by crops, leaching and water quality. The basic process modules are: soil water dynamics, soil temperature dynamics, crop development including permanent grassland and livestock, soil organic matter turnover and nitrogen dynamics


DAYCENT is a biogeochemical model that simulates fluxes of C and N among the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil operating at daily time-steps. Key submodels include soil water content and temperature by layer, plant production and allocation of net primary production (NPP), decomposition of litter and soil organic matter, mineralization of nutrients, N gas emissions from nitrification and denitrification, and CH4 oxidation in non-saturated soils. Model outputs include: daily N-gas flux (N2O, NOx, N2), CO2 flux from heterotrophic soil respiration, soil organic C and N, NPP, H2O and NO3 leaching, and other ecosystem parameters.

DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC)

DNDC is a computer simulation model of carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in agro-ecosystems. The model can be used for predicting crop growth, soil temperature and moisture regimes, soil carbon dynamics, nitrogen leaching, and emissions of trace gases including nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), dinitrogen (N2), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2).


KEYLINK is a soil model integrating new knowledge on soil structure and its importance for soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and hydrology, with the existing concepts on SOM pools, and elements from food web models, i.e. those from direct trophic interactions among soil organisms.


MILLENIAL is a soil model developed to simulate C pools that can be measured by extraction or fractionation, including particulate organic C, mineral-associated organic C, aggregate C, microbial biomass, and low molecular weight C. Model processes have been updated to reflect the current understanding of mineral-association, temperature sensitivity and reaction kinetics.

Rothamsted carbon model (ROTH-C)

ROTH-C is amodel for the turnover of organic carbon in non-waterlogged topsoils that allows for the effects of soil type, temperature, moisture and plant cover on the turnover precesses. It uses a monthly time step to calculate total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and delta 14C on a years to centuries timescale.