CASTANEA is a physiological multilayer process-based model designed to predict the carbon balance of an even-aged, monospecific deciduous forest stand. The main output variables are: (1) leaf area index (LAI), standing biomass, soil carbon content and water content, which are state variables; and (2) canopy photosynthesis, maintenance respiration, growth of organs, growth respiration, soil heterotrophic respiration, transpiration and evapotranspiration, which are flux density variables


DAYCENT is a biogeochemical model that simulates fluxes of C and N among the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil operating at daily time-steps. Key submodels include soil water content and temperature by layer, plant production and allocation of net primary production (NPP), decomposition of litter and soil organic matter, mineralization of nutrients, N gas emissions from nitrification and denitrification, and CH4 oxidation in non-saturated soils. Model outputs include: daily N-gas flux (N2O, NOx, N2), CO2 flux from heterotrophic soil respiration, soil organic C and N, NPP, H2O and NO3 leaching, and other ecosystem parameters.


LINKAGES is a forest ecosystem biogeochemistry model that predicts long-term structure and dynamics of forest ecosystems as constrained by nitrogen availability, climate, and soil moisture. LINKAGES simulates ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage and cycling by considering the interactions between physiological processes that determine individual tree growth, demographic processes that determine tree-population dynamics, microbial processes that determine nitrogen availability, and environmental processes that determine water availability.


MuSICA is a model primarily developed to simulate the exchanges of mass (water, CO2) and energy in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Stand structure is explicitly accounted for and competition for light and water between species can be explored. The model typically produces output at a 30-min time step and can be run over multiple years or decades as long as the vegetation structure is given.