BILJOU is a forest water balance model that simulates water flows (transpiration, interception, soil evaporation and drainage) in a forest ecosystem at daily time steps.


BROOK90 is a hydrological model that simulates vertical soil water movement and daily evapotranspiration for all land surfaces at all times of year using a process-oriented approach with physically-meaningful parameters. The complexities of hillslope hydrology and spatial distribution have been omitted in order to focus on the details of the factors controlling evaporation. The model estimates interception and transpiration from a single layer (big leaf) plant canopy, soil and snow evaporation, snow accumulation and melt, and soil-water movement through one or more soil layers (including macropore-assisted infiltration).


CANOAK is a coupled biophysical and ecophysiolgical model that computes fluxes of water, heat and CO2 exchange within vegetation canopies and between the canopy and the atmosphere. In doing so CANOAK computes the canopy microclimate (light, wind, temperature, humidity and CO2), which provides drivers for physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer (FORCAsT)

FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer model is a canopy model capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic VOC oxidation.


MAESTRO/MAESTRA is a 3D model of forest canopy radiation absorption and photosynthesis. The forest canopy is represented in the model as an array of tree crowns, whose positions and dimensions are specified, but calculations are done for a target crown.


MuSICA is a model primarily developed to simulate the exchanges of mass (water, CO2) and energy in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Stand structure is explicitly accounted for and competition for light and water between species can be explored. The model typically produces output at a 30-min time step and can be run over multiple years or decades as long as the vegetation structure is given.