Biome-BGC is an ecosystem model that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of terrestrial ecosystems. Processes accounted for are leaf growth, litterfall, sunlight interception, rainfall interception, snow accumulation, snowmelt, drainage of soil water, evaporation of water from soil and leaves, transpiration, photosynthetic carbon fixation, nitrogen uptake, allocation of carbon and nitrogen, decomposition of plant litter and soil organic mater, plant mortality and fireThe model uses a daily time-step.
Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE)
CABLE is a land surface model used to calculate fluxes of momentum, energy, water and carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere and to model the major biochemical cycles of the land ecosystem. CABLE can be run as a standalone model for a single location or globally, or as part of an atmospheric model.
Community Land Model (CLM-DGVM)
The Community Land Model is a collaborative project between scientists. The model simulates the physical, chemical and biological processes by which terrestrial ecosystems affect and are affected by climate across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The model represents several aspects of the land surface, including surface heterogeneity and consists of components related to land biogeophysics, hydrological cycle, biogeochemistry, human dimensions and ecosystem dynamics.
Ecosystem Demography model (ED)
ED is an individual-based model of vegetation dynamics with integrated submodels of plant growth, mortality, phenology, disturbance, hydrology and soil biogeochemistry. individual plants of different functional types compete mechanistically in ED under local environmental conditions.
Ecosystem Demography model (ED2)
ED2 is an integrated terrestrial biosphere model incorporating hydrology, land-surface biophysics, vegetation dynamics, and soil carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry. Like ED, ED2 uses a set of size- and age-structured partial differential equations that track the changing structure and composition of the plant canopy.
Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES)
FATES is a terrestrial ecosystem model that simulates and predicts growth, death and regeneration of plants and subsequent tree size distributions. When coupled into an earth system model, FATES allows representing potential ecosystem responses to environmental resource variability (water, light, nutrients), climate and atmospheric compositional changes.
Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS)
IBIS is a comprehensive computer model of the Earth’s terrestrial ecosystems that simulates a wide variety of ecosystem processes, including energy, water, and CO2 exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere, physiological processes of plants and soil organisms, vegetation phenology, plant growth and competition, and nutrient cycling.
Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES)
JULES is a community land surface model that is used both as a standalone model and as the land surface component in UK’s Met Office Unified Model. JULES has a tiled model of sub-grid heterogeneity with separate surface temperatures, short-wave and long-wave radiative fluxes, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat fluxes, canopy moisture contents, snow masses and snow melt rates computed for each surface type in a grid-box.
Lund–Potsdam–Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS)
LPJ-GUESS is a process-based dynamic vegetation-terrestrial ecosystem model designed for regional or global studies. It can predict structural, compositional and functional properties of the native ecosystems of major climate zones of the Earth.
Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed land (LPJmL)
The LPJmL model is a dynamic gloval vegetation model designed to simulate the global terrestrial water and carbon cycles and the response of carbon and vegetation patterns under climate change. LPJmL simulate vegetation composition and distribution as well as stocks and land-atmosphere exchange flows of carbon and water, both for natural and agricultural ecosystems.
Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE)
ORCHIDEE is the land surface model of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, and can be run as a stand alone terrestrial biosphere model in a coupled set-up. The model includes processes to quantify terrestrial water, carbon and energy balances. Anthropogenic interferences includes land cover changes, fire, crop irrigation and forest/grassland management.
Quantifying Interactions between terrestrial Nutrient CYcles and the climate system (QUINCY)
The QUINCY model is a terrestrial biosphere model tracking the flows of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as a number of isotopes for a number of pre-defined terrestrial ecosystem types at a half-hourly time-step. The objective of QUINCY is to clarify the role of the interacting terrestrial nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and their effects on terrestrial C allocation and residence times as well as terrestrial water fluxes. It is currently developed to run for individual sites driven by surface meteorology, but its intention is to be further developed to be coupled to a land-surface scheme of a global climate model.
The Canadian Land Surface Scheme Including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC)
CLASSIC is a land surface model that simulates the exchanges of energy, water, carbon, and momentum at the earth’s surface. CLASSIC is formed by the coupling of the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM). CLASS handles the model physics including fluxes of energy, water and momentum. CTEM simulates biogeochemical cycles including fluxes of carbon.