ECH2O is a spatially-distributed, physically-based model for ecohydrologic studies. It couples together a description of the energy balance with a hydrologic model and a forest growth components.


FATE is a spatially and temporally explicit vegetation model. It uses plant functional groups (PFG) and integrates important mechanisms driving vegetation dynamics, structure and diversity, such as demographic cycle, obviously, but also seeds dispersal, abiotic filtering or biotic interactions (through the competition for resources like light availability or soil nutrient availability).


The spatially explicit ecosystem process model FireBGCv2 is a landscape fire and vegetation model C++ computer program that incorporates several types of stand dynamics models into a spatially explicit landscape simulation platform.


LandClim is a stochastic process-based model designed to study spatially explicit forest dynamics at the landscape scale over long time periods with a fine spatial resolution. The tree growth processes are based on a simplified version of the forest gap model FORCLIM. At the landscape scale, LandClim simulates processes that occur across grid cells, including seed dispersal, disturbances and forest management regimes.


The LANDIS-II forest landscape model simulates forests (both trees and shrubs) at decadal to multi-century time scales and spatial scales spanning hundreds to millions of hectares. The model simulates change as a function of growth and succession and, optionally, as they are influenced by range of disturbances (e.g., fire, wind, insects), forest management, land use change.


LANDIS PRO is a raster-based forest landscape model (FLM) that evolved over 15 years of development and applications of the LANDIS model. Within each raster cell, the model records number of trees by species age cohort, and size (e.g., DBH) of each age cohort, which is derived from empirical age-DBH relationships. LANDIS PRO incorporates species-, stand-, and landscape-scale processes. Species- and stand-scale processes are simulated within each cell, and landscape-scale processes are simulated across the whole landscape, in addition these three scales interact with each other.

Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSYS)

RHESSYS is a GIS-based hydro-ecological modelling framework designed to simulate carbon, water and nutrient fluxes. By combining a set of physically-based process models and a methodology for partitioning and parameterizing the landscape, RHESSYS is capable of modelling the spatial distribution and spatio-temporal interactions between different processes at the watershed scale.


Tethys-Chloris is a physical-based mechanistic tool developed to account for the coupled interactions of energy-water-vegetation in a variety of environments and climates where water is the key component. Energy and mass exchanges in the atmospheric surface layer are treated thoroughly with an accurate resistance analogy scheme. A simplified module of saturated and unsaturated soil water dynamics governs the subsurface hydrology. Up to two layers of vegetation (e.g. trees and grasses) can be accounted for. In cold environment a snowpack evolution module controls the energy exchanges, the snow accumulation and the snow melting that can be eventually mediated by vegetation interactions. Vegetation structure and dynamics are parsimoniously parameterizes including plant life-cycle processes, photosynthesis, phenology, carbon allocation and tissues turnover.

the individual-based forest landscape and disturbance model (iLand)

iLand is a model of forest landscape dynamics, simulating individual tree competition, growth, mortality, and regeneration. It addresses interactions between climate (change), disturbance regimes, vegetation dynamics, and forest management. In iLand, forest dynamics is modeled as an emergent property of interactions between adaptive agents, and their environment. iLand is a multi-scale process-based model, integrating processes from the individual tree level (e.g., competition) to the landscape scale (e.g., disturbance) in a hierarchical simulation framework.


TreeMig model, a spatially explicit and linked forest landscape model originally based on a forest gap model, which takes additionally into account tree species migration. In each cell (sidelength from 25m to 1km) of a rectangular grid, forest dynamics is simulated at the species level, including environment dependent reproduction, growth, competition, and mortality, and between-cell seed dispersal which allows the simulation of migration. Within-cell vertical and horizontal structure is depicted by frequency distributions of tree density in height classes and therefore light attenuation.