ECH2O is a spatially-distributed, physically-based model for ecohydrologic studies. It couples together a description of the energy balance with a hydrologic model and a forest growth components.


The spatially explicit ecosystem process model FireBGCv2 is a landscape fire and vegetation model C++ computer program that incorporates several types of stand dynamics models into a spatially explicit landscape simulation platform.


LANDIS PRO is a raster-based forest landscape model (FLM) that evolved over 15 years of development and applications of the LANDIS model. Within each raster cell, the model records number of trees by species age cohort, and size (e.g., DBH) of each age cohort, which is derived from empirical age-DBH relationships. LANDIS PRO incorporates species-, stand-, and landscape-scale processes. Species- and stand-scale processes are simulated within each cell, and landscape-scale processes are simulated across the whole landscape, in addition these three scales interact with each other.

Lund–Potsdam–Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS)

LPJ-GUESS is a process-based dynamic vegetation-terrestrial ecosystem model designed for regional or global studies. It can predict structural, compositional and functional properties of the native ecosystems of major climate zones of the Earth.

Modeling and Analysis in Dendroecology (MAIDEN)

MAIDEN is an ecophysiological model that was created to explore the relationships between climate variability and forest growth-productivity. The simulations can be verified using different data to validate the different processes in the model, including dendroecological growth data, 13C and 18O data and measurements of ecosystem carbon and water fluxes.


The PICUS model family is based on the patch model approach and comprises the three model variants,each operating on a different level of physiological detail

the individual-based forest landscape and disturbance model (iLand)

iLand is a model of forest landscape dynamics, simulating individual tree competition, growth, mortality, and regeneration. It addresses interactions between climate (change), disturbance regimes, vegetation dynamics, and forest management. In iLand, forest dynamics is modeled as an emergent property of interactions between adaptive agents, and their environment. iLand is a multi-scale process-based model, integrating processes from the individual tree level (e.g., competition) to the landscape scale (e.g., disturbance) in a hierarchical simulation framework.